First Aid Acronyms – PEARL

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First Aid is an extremely valuable skill. It allows you to assist anyone suffering from either a minor or serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.

Accidents can occur at any moment and we can never predict when someone is going to sustain an injury or become ill. However, we can educate and prepare ourselves so that we can confidently step forward and offer support to injured casualties if necessary.

What Does PEARL Stand For?

The first aid acronym PEARL is used when assessing a casualty for head injuries and brain function. When a casualty’s eyes are opened, or a torch shone in them, their pupils should respond to the light by shrinking. If the pupils don’t react or react unequally, then there is likely to be a problem which is causing the brain to not function correctly.

PUPILS

The pupils are in the centre of the iris, the coloured part of the eye. They control how much light enters the eye by shrinking and widening.

EQUAL

Your pupils should be the same size. If one is bigger than the other then you may need some tests to figure out why.

AND

REACTIVE

Your pupils react to your surroundings to control how much light enters your eyes. When a patient’s eyes are opened, or a torch shone into them, their pupils should respond to the light by shrinking.

LIGHT

When light is shone into your eyes, your pupils should get smaller. If the pupils don’t react or react unequally, then there may be an issue which is causing the brain not to function correctly

If a patient’s pupils are not equal and reactive to light then they will be either:

  • Constricted – Think drugs
  • Dilated – Think drugs, hypothermia or worse
  • Different sizes – Think brain injury

Get In Touch

Interested in undertaking one of our First Aid Courses in Wirral? Call us today on 0151 343 0588 to learn more. Alternatively, you can email us at [email protected] and a member of our team will get back to you as soon as possible.

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